Behavioral explanations of obesity can be place into two categories: excessive caloric intake (overeating) and lack of physical activity. The basic laws of nature require that calories must be consume before energy can be store as excess weight. The body cannot make energy on its own. For the obese and overweight therefore, caloric intake is an important issue.
Do obese people eat more than normal-weight people? This has been a controversial question and researchers are divide in their answer. Numerous studies show that obese people eat no more and sometimes eat less than normal-weight people. These researchers would suggest that blaming Explanations of Obesity on a lack of willpower is inaccurate and an over simplification of the facts. They maintain that the body of the obese person is simply more efficient at converting calories to adipose cells for reasons beyond his or her control, such as genetic predisposition or higher set point for fatness. State another way, obese people may not eat more than normal weight people; they just consume more calories than are require by their bodies.
Other researchers claim that obese people do eat more than normal-weight people; the problem is a discrepancy in accurately organic food intake. In one study obese subjects underestimate food intake by about 50% and overestimate physical activity by 33%. In another study obese women were found to expend and therefore eat about 400 to 500 calories more on average each day than normal-weight women.
High in Fat and Calories Food
Whereas researchers are divide on the issue of overeating, they tend to agree that the abundance of food high in fat and calories is a major factor in the prevalence of obesity in the United States. In his review of the literature on obesity-a review that include 284 citations from the scientific literature Knifeman stated: “Of all the current theories attempting to explain the epidemic of Explanations of Obesity in most Western societies, the high dietary fat intake hypothesis is most widely accept by experts. Overweight people tend to eat a higher-fat diet than people of normal weight. Ounce for ounce, fat yields more than double the number of calories as protein or carbohydrates. This energy difference partially explains the relationship between dietary fat intake and weight gain. It is not a complete explanation because in studies that hold the total number of calories constant and more calories are consume than need, a person eating a high-fat diet tend to store more excess. Your body is more sensitive to excess carbohydrates than excess fat. Studies conduct in laboratory-type settings (for example, in a respiratory chamber where oxygen is measure, burning calories requires oxygen, more to burn fat, less to burn carbohydrates) show that once the glycogen stores are fill, the body burns carbohydrates first and then stores the fat. We use fat for energy, especially between meals. The brain uses exclusively glucose for energy, but other tissues use fatty acids. Right after meals, all tissues burn glucose.
Excess of Glycogen in the Liver
Excess carbohydrates are convert to glycogen in the liver and muscle. Fat cells are distribute throughout the body. Whereas carbohydrate storage is carefully regulate, fat storage is not, allowing a high degree of expansion. After a large meal, a bit of glucose and amino acids are left over, some of which are used to make fatty acids. This is why the American population has an increasing incidence of Explanations of Obesity on diets high in carbohydrates and excessive in calories. The body’s capacity to make and store fat may have serve a useful purpose in earlier times when humans face the constant threat of famines and an energy reserve meant survival. But now with the sedentary lifestyles of most Americans, glycogen stores are rarely exhausted. The reality for too many people is that they burn carbohydrates and store fat.
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Dietary fat also has less of a thermionic effect than does carbohydrate or protein and can thus be easily store as adipose tissue. The thermionic effect of food (TEF) represents the amount of energy require by the body to digest, absorb, metabolize, and store nutrients. The body expends only 3 calories of energy to process 100 calories from fat compare with 25 calories to process 100 calories from carbohydrates. Between 7% and 10% of total body energy goes to support the TEF. For example, after a meal containing 1000 calories, the body uses 70 to 100 calories just to process the meal. The TEF helps to explain why studies consistently show that when adults and children overeat and consume high amounts of dietary fat, they tend to gain weight. Conversely, when the intake of dietary fat is low and the intake of carbohydrate and fiber is high from nutrient-dense foods, desirable body weight is more readily achieved. Cross cultural comparisons confirm the dietary fat-obesity relationship. For example, Americans eat more than twice as much fat as the Chinese, yet the Chinese consume 20% more calories and there is little Explanations of Obesity in China.
Because the energy in carbohydrate stores (glycogen) is very small in relation to that in fat stores, the glycogen can be depleted quickly and frequently. The glucose requirement of the brain, other cells of the nervous system, and a few other tissues provides a stimulus for carbohydrate ingestion. The higher the proportion of fat in the diet, the more total food must be consume to obtain enough carbohydrates to fill glycogen stores in the muscle and liver.
The high-fat theory of obesity leads to an important question: can a person lose weight by simply focusing on fat calories? In highly control studies in which food intake is carefully monitor, researchers found that subjects whose diets contain no more than 20% fat calories lost weight even when there were no restrictions on how much eat. But was the weight lose results of eating less fat or less calories? The answer seems to be that both fat and calories matter. In controlled studies, when people concentrate on eating less fat they also
Dietary fat Promotion
Dietary fat promotes fat storage in the body. The body expends only 3 calories to convert an extra 100 calories of dietary fat to storage fat. Fat storage is accelerate if dietary fat is combine with simple sugar in the same meal, such as a hamburger with a sugar cola drink. Sugar triggers the release of extra insulin. Insulin activates fat cell enzymes that promote movement of fat from the blood to the fat cells. On the other hand, the ingestion of an extra 100 calories of complex carbohydrates requires that the body expend 25 calories to convert it to fat for storage. The conversion process for carbohydrates is more costly than that for fats and provides another reason for reducing fat consumption and increasing carbohydrate consumption.
Consumption of Calories Consume fewer calories and lose weight. This is due to the consumption of mainly nutrient dense foods. Does the same thing happen in real life? Apparently not. Studies of the eating habits of both men and women who consume low-fat products reveal that they often compensate by eating more snack and dessert foods high in sugar but low-fat so the use of low-fat foods becomes an excuse to eat more. The idea that people can eat as much as they want as long as its fat free appears to be more fantasy than fact. Although some researchers believe that fat is the main culprit associate with Explanations of Obesity; other experts emphasize that calories count. This helps to explain why Americans are getting heavier with each passing year, even though they are consuming a lower proportion of fat. Increased consumption of low-fat foods by itself does not result in weight loss. Whereas eating low-fat foods is good for health affairs and weight control, eating them in buffet-sized portions isn’t.